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Illumination: People are used to daylight illumination. This can be approximately lux on a dull winter day, while on a sunny summer day approximately lux are reached. In contrast, only between and lux are reached with artificial illumination.

However, sufficient light is an essential factor for the well-being of people. Symptoms of tiredness, caused by insufficient light, do not generally occur at the eye but affect the whole body. The following nominal illuminations are valid for inside:. Global Radiation: The global radiation is a measuring variable that is especially important for environmental research. It represents the entire diffuse and direct sun radiation that strikes the surface of the earth. The spectral range covers wavelengths from the short-wave range, at nm UV-B , to the long-wave range, at nm IR. UVA Radiation: The long-wave UV radiation more than nm reaches the surface of the earth almost unfiltered and tans the human skin and strengthens the immune system.

On Some Results of the View of a Characteristic Function in Optics.

In solariums the biological effect of the UVA spectrum is used, combined with other spectral ranges, to trigger the direct pigmentation melanin colouring. Damages to the connective tissue and premature skin ageing are promoted by too much radiation. All spectral characteristic functions that can have unfavourable effects on the human skin are summarised in the CIE recommendation. This recommendation is described in DIN and regarded as a guideline.

The measuring results provide, directly or in comparison with other spectral ranges, information that is of medical or biological relevance. This website uses cookies to give you the best possible functionality. Read more. Diese Seite wird nur mit JavaScript korrekt dargestellt.

Fiber-Optic Characteristics > Fiber-Optic Technologies

Definition of Photometric and Radiometric Measurable Variables. Radiation Capacity The overall power provided by radiation. The General Centered System 4. Stigmatic Imaging with Wide-angle Pencils 4. The Sine Condition 4. The Herschel Condition 4.

Astigmatic Pencils of Rays 4. Focal Properties of a Thin Pencil 4. Refraction of a Thin Pencil 4. Chromatic Aberration. Dispersion by a Prism 4. Chromatic Aberration 4. Photometry and Apertures 4. Basic Concepts of Photometry 4. Stops and Pupils 4. Brightness and Illumination of Images 4. Ray Tracing 4.

Oblique Meridional Rays 4. Paraxial Rays 4. Skew Rays 4.


Design of Aspheric Surfaces 4. Attainment of Axial Stigmatism 4. Attainment of Aplanatism V. Geometrical Theory of Aberrations 5. Wave and Ray Aberrations; the Aberration Function 5. The Perturbation Eikonal of Schwarzschild 5. The Primary Seidel Aberrations 5.

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Addition Theorem for the Primary Aberrations 5. Petzval's Theorem 5. Image-Forming Instruments 6. The Eye 6.

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The Camera 6. The Refracting Telescope 6. The Reflecting Telescope 6. Instruments of Illumination 6. The Microscope VII. Elements of the Theory of Interference and Interferometers 7.


Introduction 7. Interference of Two Monochromatic Waves 7. Young's Experiment 7. Fresnel's Mirrors and Similar Arrangements 7. Fringes with Quasi-Monochromatic and White Light 7. Use of Slit Sources; Visibility of Fringes 7. Standing Waves 7. Two-Beam Interference: Division of Amplitude 7. Fringes with a Plane Parallel Plate 7. Fringes with Thin Films; the Fizeau Interferometer 7. Localization of Fringes 7. The Michelson Interferometer 7. The Twyman-Green and Related Interferometers 7. Multiple-Beam Interference 7.

The Fabry-Perot Interferometer 7. The Lummer-Gehrcke Interferometer 7. Interference Filters 7. Multiple-Beam Fringes with Thin Films 7. Elements of the Theory of Diffraction 8. Introduction 8. The Huygens-Fresnel Principle 8. Kirchhoff's Diffraction Theory 8. The Integral Theorem of Kirchhoff 8. Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction 8.

Transition to a Scalar Theory 8. The Image Field Due to a Monochromatic oscillator 8. The Total Image Field 8. Fraunhofer Diffraction at Apertures of Various Forms 8. The Rectangular Aperture and the Slit 8. The Circular Aperture 8. Other Forms of Aperture 8. Fraunhofer Diffraction in Optical Instruments 8. Diffraction Gratings 8.

Resolving Power of Image-forming Systems 8. Image Formation in the Microscope 8. Fresnel Diffraction at a Straight Edge 8.